"I Broke My Clarinet" is a French folk song
"I can't get a note out of the clarinet which Papa gave me" is a very famous French folk song which has been translated in Japanese-fitting lyrics for a country which loves the clarinet. As the familiar "Au pas camarade" chorus of the song sounds so delightful, the translator has apparently left it alone. In fact, "Au pas camarade" means something like "Let's go, my friend." Since this phrase is also used when ordering people to "Fall in!" it is probably meant as a request for the instrument's sound to return as before.
This song is highly amusing to listen to, since when it is played on an instrument, the instrument is deliberately made to sound as if the notes are broken.