The origins of the Tuba
The Family of Saxhorn Instruments
Differences between the alto horn, tenor horn, and baritone
Due to complicated circumstances, the names of saxhorn instruments vary between countries and historical periods. Explanations here will mainly focus on the instruments used in Japan, the U.K., and the U.S
Despite a list of names that includes the alto horn, tenor horn, and baritone, there are actually only two types of instruments in the saxhorn family. Some countries, however, use three or more categories for these two types of instruments. The names differ depending on the tonality or thickness of the tubes, the instrument's timbre, and its function in a band.
The alto horn
The tenor horn
Usually equipped with three piston valves, this B♭ horn has the same tonal range as the euphonium. Some euphonium and trombone players will also play the baritone.
The timbre is bright and the tubes are considerably thinner than the euphonium. Despite having tubes thinner than the euphonium, the B♭ horn is called the baritone.
In the U.S., a euphonium with the bell and pistons facing forward may be called a baritone to differentiate it from a true euphonium.