Using the External Memory

Summary

The following are functions that you can use after connecting the external memory (microSD memory cards and USB flash drives) to the router:

File Copy
This function can be used to export the settings and syslog data to the external memory as files or import the files stored on the external memory to the router.
The files on the external memory can be imported with a simple button operation, making the device installation/deployment easier and simpler.
Startup
This function allows you to start the router using the desired settings and firmware, simply by switching on the router after connecting an external memory containing the settings and firmware files.
This helps to greatly simplify the device installation/deployment and fault recovery operations.
Execute Batch File
This is a batch file containing execution commands that allows you to execute router commands at any timing with a button operation, etc.
The command execution result will also be output to the external memory.
The operation verification can be performed easily.
Redirect
This function allows you to select the external memory as the output destination instead of the console screen when executing the command for outputting the internal information.
The internal information can easily be saved during maintenance.

For more details about these functions, see the explanatory documentation for each function.
Basic handling of the external memory, the specifications for the LED and buzzer, and system log messages are explained in this document.

Compatible Models & Supported External Memory

The external memory that can be used differs depending on the model.

Model Supported external memory Firmware
RTX5000 microSD/SDHC memory cards Rev.14.00 series
FWX120 microSD/SDHC memory cards, USB flash drives Rev.11.03 series
RTX810 microSD/SDHC memory cards, USB flash drives Rev.11.01 series

Notes

  • Supported file formats are as follows:
    • FAT
    • FAT32
  • Does not guarantee operation of all external memory devices (Tested USB Memory Devices).
  • You cannot use multiple external memory devices by using a USB hub at the same time.
  • Operation of external memory devices that inhibits the operation of the external memory button near the external memory port due to its shape cannot be guaranteed. In such a case, use an extension cable or adapter separately.
  • Make sure to follow the procedure explained in Basic Operations when inserting and removing external memory. You may otherwise damage the data on the external memory.
  • When specifying a file on external memory with a command related to this function, you can use the following single-byte characters in the file name.
    • Alphanumeric characters
    • Underscore (_)
    • Period (.)
      However, uppercase and lowercase letters are not differentiated. You cannot specify names that end with a period.

The following are precautions for USB flash drives.

  • This function supports USB 1.1/2.0. However, the following conditions must be met:
    • Compatible with OHCI (USB1.1) and EHCI (USB2.0) as a host controller.
    • Compatible with USB Mass Storage Class drivers.
    • Flash memory must be able to operate on a bus power supply with a current consumption of 250 mA or lower.
  • If a USB flash drive is connected to the router that consumes a current outside of the allowable range, an alarm will sound four times and the USB LED will continue blinking (USB device error state). If you connect a different USB flash drive to the router in this error state, it will not be recognized. To recover the function from this state, execute the following procedure:
    1. If the USB flash drive is connected to the router, remove it.
    2. Perform one of the following:
      - Press the USB button.
      - Set the "usbhost use" command to "on" again.
      * You can recover from the error even if you set it to "off".

Basic Operations

Connect the external memory

Check that the "usbhost use" command (if using a USB flash drive) or "sd use" command (if using a microSD memory card) is configured to "on" (the default setting is "on") on the router. If it is "off", the external memory will not be recognized when connected to the router.

Example: Enable the function in order to use USB flash drive

# usbhost use on 

Connect external memory to the router.
If an alarm sounds, the external memory LED turns on at the same time indicating that external memory has been recognized on the router. You can now use the various functions that require the external memory.

If the external memory is damaged and cannot be recognized correctly, the alarm will not sound and the external memory LED will not light. If this happens, remove the external memory and replace with a functional external memory.

If the alarm sounds four times and the LED blinks, this indicates that an error, such as the current being outside of the allowable range, has been detected. For the recovery procedure in this case, refer to "Notes".

Remove the external memory

Before removing the external memory from the router, hold down the external memory button for more than two seconds.
The process for safely removing the external memory will be performed on the router. Once the alarm sounds and you have checked that the external memory LED has turned off, carefully remove the external memory.

Do not remove the external memory while the external memory LED is on.

Automatic File Search

You can automatically search for files in directories on the external memory.

Automatic search settings

The automatic search function works in the following situations:

  • With the external memory connected, search for the startup file during startup
  • Search for the copy source file when holding down the external memory button and DOWNLOAD button at the same time for more than three seconds for copying
  • Search for copy source file with the "copy exec" and "copy config" commands
  • Batch file search when executing the "execute batch" command
  • Batch file search when using the execute batch files function with the DOWNLOAD button

If using the automatic search in the file copy or startup function, only specify the file name with the "external-memory exec filename" or "external-memory config filename" command.
If using the automatic search in the execute batch file function, only specify the file name in the file name setting with the "external-memory batch filename" command.
All of these commands only specify the file name by default for the automatic search.

When executing the "copy" command, if you only specify the external memory file name as the copy source file name, the file on the external memory will be searched automatically.

If you directly specify an absolute file path (starting with "/"), automatic search will not be performed; and only files in the specified location will be the search target.

The following shows the differences in operations between the specification methods using the "external-memory exec filename" command as an example.

Example 1: When only specifying the file name

# external-memory exec filename sd1:rtx800.bin

Search for the filename "rtx800.bin" in the microSD memory card

Example 2: When specifying the file using an absolute path

# external-memory exec filename sd1:/rtx800.bin

Search for the filename "rtx800.bin" from the root directory in the microSD memory card

# external-memory exec filename sd1:/dir1/rtx800.bin

Search for "rtx800.bin" from the directory "dir1" in the microSD memory card

Example 3: When not searching for unwanted files

# external-memory exec filename off

Do not search for firmware files

Example 4: A setting that would produce an error

# external-memory exec filename sd1:dir1/rtx810_en.bin

The specified path will be an absolute path, so a slash (/) is necessary at the beginning to indicate a root directory.
In this setting, "dir1/rtx800.bin" is treated as the file name so the system will judge that there is an invalid character (/) in the file name and return an error.

Depending on the number of files and directories stored on external memory and their structures, automatic file searching may take a long time.
To reduce the search time, you should avoid creating deeply nested directories and store the file near the root directory, or specify the file directly using an absolute path (starting with '/').
All directories are searched even if search target files do not exist, which will be a waste of time. Therefore, you should configure the file name specification in the above command to "off" for unwanted search files.

Automatic search rules

The automatic search follows the rules described below:

  • When specifying "*:" on external memory, the microSD memory card is searched first followed by the USB flash drive.
    If the target file is found on the microSD memory card, the USB flash drive will not be searched.
  • If the target file exists in the root directory, the file will be selected.
  • Directories under the root directory will be searched.
    Directories up to 16 levels under the root directory are subject to the search.
  • The target file in the directory level closest to the root directory will be selected.
  • For files in a directory in the same hierarchical level, the target file in the directory level having the smallest character code will be selected. The directory search order follows the order displayed in the file list view on the GUI screen ("Browse" under "Maintenance" > "Copy the Configuration File" settings screen).
  • When the automatic search time limit is reached, automatic search will end and the files searched up to that point will be treated as not found.
  • If only one of the specified files exists, only the existing file will be targeted.
  • Directories for operating system management (Recycled, System Volume Information, etc.) will excluded from the search.

Cancel the automatic search

If the search takes a long time, you can cancel it with the following settings and operations:

  • If the time configured with the "external-memory auto-search time" command elapses (the default value is 300 seconds), the search will timeout and end.
  • When executing the "copy exec", "copy config", and "execute batch" commands, pressing Ctrl+C during a search will cancel the search.
  • If you press the external memory and DOWNLOAD buttons together to copy a file, you can cancel a search by holding down the DOWNLOAD button for one second.
  • If you press the DOWNLOAD button to execute a batch file, you can cancel a search by holding down the DOWNLOAD button for one second.
  • If you hold down the DOWNLOAD button for one second to cancel a search, release the button when your hear buzzer informing you that the search has been canceled. Holding down the DOWNLOAD button for more than three seconds will execute the DOWNLOAD button function. Also refer to "Operation of the External Memory and Download Buttons".
  • The following describes how to cancel a search and what happens when the search is canceled.
    By holding down the external memory button for more than two seconds during a file search, the status of the external memory with the button depressed will become disconnected (DETACH state).
Operation Timeout Hold down the DOWNLOAD button for one second Ctrl+C
Startup from the external memory All external memory devices are disconnected (DETACH) - -
"copy exec" command
"copy config" command
Cancels the search - Cancels the search
External memory button
+
DOWNLOAD button
(file copy)
Cancels the search
Buzzer sounds four times
Cancels the search
Buzzer sounds four times
-
"execute batch" command Cancels the search - Cancels the search
DOWNLOAD button
(Batch file execution)
Cancels the search
Buzzer sounds four times
Cancels the search
Buzzer sounds four times
-

Accelerate the File Access

This function improves the access performance to the files and directories in the applicable directory on the external memory that stores a large number of files and directories.
The following explains this function.

Firstly, to use this function, you need to enable the file access acceleration mechanism with the "external-memory accelerator cache size" command (enabled by default). The file access acceleration mechanism is enabled for all settings except for โ€˜offโ€™.

Example) Configure the cache memory size to be used for file access to the external memory connected to the usb1 interface to โ€˜1โ€™.

# external-memory accelerator cache size usb1 1 

The conditions for the high-speed access to be applied are listed below.

  • The acceleration mechanism is enabled (enabled by default)
  • There must be more than 100 target files and directories saved in the applicable target directory
  • The management information of the target files and directories must be cached

If all of these conditions are met, high-speed access will be applied. If not, high-speed access is not applied and all access will be normal (conventional operation).

As explained above, in order to apply high-speed access, the management information of the target files and directories must be cached. Normally, this information is cached when the external memory is connected. The information is also cached when the total file/directory count in the directory exceeds 100 as result of creating files and directories. Conversely, when the total count falls below 100 as result of deleting files and directories, the cache will be cleared. If access performance does not improve, cache memory may be insufficient and the management information for the target files and directories may not be cached. In such a case, increase the cache memory size to be used with the "external-memory accelerator cache size" command. However, if you increase the memory size, it may also increase the time from connecting the external memory to it becoming accessible, depending on the directory and file configuration in the external memory.
For details, see the description of the "external-memory accelerator cache size" command.

*Notes

  • This function does not improve the access performance for all files and directories on the external memory.
  • If no directories exist on the external memory described in the applicable conditions, operations will be the same as usual (the acceleration mechanism is disabled).
  • If many directories described in the applicable conditions exist on the external memory, it may take a long time to generate the management information cache.
  • Depending on the directory/file structure on the external memory, cache memory may be insufficient even if you configure the size to the maximum value. In such a case, the access performance will be the same as usual. To resolve this, you need to delete some files and/or directories on the external memory.
  • If you are using the external memory to copy configuration files and save logs and the external memory contains a large amount of directories and files, you can use this function with the acceleration mechanism disabled ("off") by reducing the number of files in the applicable directory.

Command

Set Whether to Use the USB Host Function

[Syntax]
usbhost use SWITCH
no usbhost use [SWITCH]
[Setting Value]
  • SWITCH
    • on ... Use the USB host function
    • off ... Do not use the USB host function
[Initial Value]
  • on
[Description]

Sets whether to use the USB host function.
When this command is set to off, the router will not recognize USB memory that is connected to it.
Also, if the USB host function is impaired by excess current, you can restore it by executing this command when there is no USB memory connected to the router.

[Applicable Models]
RTX810 FWX120

Set Whether to Use the microSD Card Slot

[Syntax]
sd use SWITCH
no sd use [SWITCH]
[Setting Value]
  • SWITCH
    • on ... Use the microSD card slot
    • off ... Do not use the microSD card slot
[Initial Value]
  • on
[Description]

Sets whether to use the microSD card slot. When this command is set to off, the router will not recognize a microSD memory card even if it is inserted in the card slot.

[Applicable Models]
RTX5000 RTX810 FWX120

Set the Time Until the Excess Current Protection Function in the USB Bus Is Activated

[Syntax]
usbhost overcurrent duration DURATION
no usbhost overcurrent duration [DURATION]
[Setting Value]
  • DURATION ... Time (5..100, on the 10-millisecond time scale)
[Initial Value]
  • 5 (50 milliseconds)
[Description]

Sets the time until the excess current protection function is activated. When excess current is detected continuously for the time specified here, the excess current protection function is activated.

[Applicable Models]
RTX810 FWX120

Set the File Search Timeout

[Syntax]
external-memory auto-search time TIME
no external-memory auto-search time [TIME]
[Setting Value]
  • TIME ... Number of seconds (1..600)
[Initial Value]
  • 300
[Description]

Set the timeout time for when the router is searching for a file on the external memory.

[Applicable Models]
RTX5000 RTX810 FWX120

External Memory Performance Test Command

[Syntax]
external-memory performance-test go INTERFACE
[Setting Value]
  • INTERFACE
    • usb1 ... USB interface
    • sd1 ... microSD interface
[Description]

Check whether the memory performance is appropriate for the external memory function.
After the router performs tests and checks the time required to identify the external memory and the data load speed, if the memory performance is deemed appropriate, the following message appears:

  • OK:succeeded

Otherwise, this message appears:

  • NG:failed
[Note]

The test is meant for external memory that has just been formatted.
This function must be executed when other functions are not being used.

When this command is running, "syslog debug" on and "no syslog host" are specified. Therefore, when "syslog debug" is off, a DEBUG type SYSLOG may be output in some cases. Also, even if the "syslog host" command is specified, no log is transferred to the SYSLOG server.

This command tests the external memory for the minimum performance necessary to use the external memory function of a Yamaha router, and does not guarantee all the operations of the external memory.
When you use the external memory function, we recommend that you execute the "show status external-memory" command regularly to make sure that external memory write errors and other problems are not occurring.

[Applicable Models]
RTX5000 RTX810 FWX120

Set Whether to Sound Alarms for the USB Host Function

[Syntax]
alarm usbhost SWITCH
no alarm usbhost
[Setting Value]
  • SWITCH
    • on ... Sound alarms.
    • off ... Do not sound alarms.
[Initial Value]
  • on
[Description]

Sets whether to sound alarms for the USB host function.

[Applicable Models]
RTX810 FWX120

Set Whether to Sound Alarms for the microSD Function

[Syntax]
alarm sd SWITCH
no alarm sd [SWITCH]
[Setting Value]
  • SWITCH
    • on ... Sound alarms.
    • off ... Do not sound alarms.
[Initial Value]
  • on
[Description]

Set whether to sound alarms for the microSD function.

[Applicable Models]
RTX5000 RTX810 FWX120

Show the USB Host Function Operation Status

[Syntax]
show status usbhost [modem]
[Description]

Shows the USB host function operation status.
If you specify modem, the connection information for the device that is connected to the USB port is displayed. The current connection status, the total number of errors that have occurred during connection, the total number of bytes that have been sent and received, the total number of transmissions and receptions, information about the most recent connection, etc., are displayed.

[Applicable Models]
RTX810 FWX120

Show the Operation Status of the microSD Slot

[Syntax]
show status sd
[Description]

Shows the operation status of the microSD slot.

[Applicable Models]
RTX5000 RTX810 FWX120

Show the Operation Status of the External Memory

[Syntax]
show status external-memory
[Description]

Shows the status and common information about the external memory connected to the USB port and the microSD slot.

[Note]

If a mobile terminal is connected to the USB port, this command will indicate that external memory is not connected to the router.
You can check the status of a mobile terminal by executing the "show status usbhost" modem command.

[Applicable Models]
RTX5000 RTX810 FWX120

Set the Operational Mode of Cache Memory for the External Memory

[Syntax]
external-memory cache mode MODE
no external-memory cache mode [MODE]
[Setting Value]
  • MODE
    • write-through ... Write-through mode
    • copy-back1 ... Copy-back mode 1
    • copy-back2 ... Copy-back mode 2
[Initial Value]
  • copy-back1
[Description]

Sets the operational mode of the cache memory for the external memory.Three operational modes are supported: Write-through mode, copy-back mode 1, and copy-back mode 2. Each mode differs in the timing by which the data on each of the FAT, DIR, and FILE caches are written out to the external memory.

Each operational mode is explained below:

  • If you specify write-through, the caches assigned to FAT, DIR, and FILE will operate in write-through mode, and will always write to the external memory.This mode is the safest.
  • If you specify copy-back1, the FAT and DIR caches will operate in copy-back mode, and the FILE cache will operate in write-through mode.This allows for a faster operation than the write-through mode.
  • If you specify copy-back2, the FAT, DIR, and FILE caches will operate in copy-back mode.This setting operates at the highest speed, since writing to external memory is suppressed.However, since it will mean a prolonged state of no writing to external memory, if an unexpected power outage occurs, there is a higher possibility of the file system of the external memory suffering damage.

FAT: Abbreviation for File Allocation Table,
DIR: Abbreviation for Directory Entry

[Note]

Changes to this command are applied when the external memory is connected.If the command is input while the external memory is already connected, it must be removed and then reconnected.

[Applicable Models]

RTX5000 RTX810 FWX120

Set the Cache Memory Size for File Access Acceleration

[Syntax]
external-memory accelerator cache size INTERFACE SIZE
no external-memory accelerator cache size INTERFACE [SIZE]
[Setting Value]
  • INTERFACE
    • usb1 ... USB port 1
    • sd1 ... microSD card slot
  • SIZE
    • 1 - 5 ... Size of cache memory (the greater the value, the larger the memory size)
    • off ... Disable the file access acceleration mechanism
[Initial Value]
  • 1
[Description]

Sets the size of the cache memory used to accelerate file access.

When you specify a value for SIZE, a mechanism for accelerating file access activates, improving the access performance for the external memory, especially in structures where there are many directories and files. If the access performance does not improve, it may improve by increasing the SIZE. However, the greater the SIZE, the longer it will take for the external memory to become available after it is connected.

If you set the SIZE to "off", the cache memory for accelerating file access will not be secured.

In addition, if the external memory is connected to all interfaces simultaneously and the size is set to maximum for all interfaces, the system's overall performance may be affected. Therefore, it is recommended that you limit the use of this command to accelerate file access, to only one interface.

[Note]

Changes to this command are applied when the external memory is connected. If the command is input while the external memory is already connected, it must be removed and then reconnected.

Moreover, if the access performance does not improve even after increasing the size, it may improve by doing the following:

  • If possible, reduce the number of files and directories in the external memory
  • Adjust the total number of directories in the external memory, to less than 2,000
  • Adjust the total number of files (including directories) in the directories that are frequently accessed, to less than 20,000
  • If possible, shorten the names of files and directories (less than 32 characters recommended)
[Applicable Models]
RTX5000 RTX810 FWX120

Operations Chart

Operation of the External Memory and Download Buttons

The following is a list of operations that can be performed by holding down the external memory and download buttons together.

External memory button
Not held down 0 seconds and longer 1 seconds and longer 2 seconds and longer 3 seconds and longer
DOWNLOAD button Not held down No operation *2 *2 Removes the external memory
*2
*2
0 seconds and longer No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation
1 second and longer Cancels the execution of the DOWNLOAD button function
*1, *4
No operation No operation No operation No operation
2 second and longer No operation No operation No operation No operation No operation
3 second and longer Starts the execution of the DOWNLOAD button function
*4
No operation No operation No operation Starts downloading the configuration and/or firmware files from the external memory
*3

*1 If the buttons are pressed automatic search is being performed, automatic search will be aborted.
*2 If there is a USB device error due to overcurrent, the error will be cleared when you press and release the buttons.
*3 Does not operate if there is a USB device error due to overcurrent.
*4 The DOWNLOAD button function is a HTTP revision-up.
The operation of the DOWNLOAD button when it is pressed can be changed with the "operation button function" download command. For details, refer to "Execute Batch File".

Alarm Sound Patterns

The following is the list of alarm sound patterns in different situations. You can control whether or not to sound the alarms listed below with the "alarm usbhost" and "alarm sd" commands.

Status Sound pattern
When the external memory is recognized Two short beeps (Low pitch to high pitch)
When the download is started by holding down the external memory and DOWNLOAD buttons together Beep
When the download is started by holding down the external memory and DOWNLOAD buttons together but there are no files to download Four short beeps
When a USB device error occurs due to overcurrent Four long beeps
When the USB device recovers from an error caused by overcurrent Two short beeps (High pitch to low pitch)
When the external memory is removed

External Memory LED Illumination Patterns

The following shows the list of illumination patterns (on/off) of the external memory LED in relation to functions in which the external memory is used.

Status Illumination pattern
When external memory is recognized lights on
When the external memory is being accessed Blinks depending on the access load
When the download is started by holding down the external memory and DOWNLOAD buttons together, or when the firmware is updated with the “copy exec” command If updated using the same button operation *1 as the updating of other firmware, the system will restart automatically.
When the download is started by holding down the external memory and DOWNLOAD buttons together but there are no files to download Blinks three times
When the external memory is removed Goes off (from on state)
When a USB device error occurs due to overcurrent Blinks continuously
When the USB device recovers from an error caused by overcurrent Goes off (from blinking state)

*1 The router LEDs light in a sequence from left to right. This repeats until writing to the built-in flash ROM completes.

SYSLOG Messages

Examples of system log messages output by the functions that use the external memory are displayed below. The prefix "[SD]" or "[USB_HOST]" is added to the header of the actual messages output.
The prefix "[EXTMEMBOOT]" is added to the logs related to the "start up from the execution file on the external memory" function.

Level Output message Details
INFO Common device attached: vendor=0xXXXX <VendorName>, product=0xXXXX <ProductName> The device was connected
device detached: vendor=0xXXXX <VendorName>, product=0xXXXX <ProductName> The device was removed
microSD storage device is attached A microSD device is connected and ready for use
Medium formatted by unsupported file system Media formatted in an unsupported file system has been detected
Detection of USB device error status(wrong device) The connected USB device is damaged (cannot be recognized)
Detection of USB device error status(over current) A hardware failure occurred on the connected USB device due to overcurrent
Recovery from USB device error status(over current) The router recovered from an error caused by overcurrent in the USB device
Ready to detach USB device safely The USB device can be removed safely
Timeout in file search A timeout occurred while searching for files
Copy File To the External Memory Logfile is opened ("sd1:FILENAME", maximum size: XXXX bytes) Opened the SYSLOG file to be exported to the microSD memory
FAILED : Logfile is not opened ("sd1:FILENAME") Failed to open the SYSLOG file to be exported to the microSD memory
Logfile is closed ("sd1:FILENAME") Closed the SYSLOG file exported to the microSD memory
Logfile is backed up from "sd1:LOG_FILENAME" to "sd1:BAK_FILENAME" Saved the SYSLOG file on the microSD memory to a backup file because it reached its maximum size
FAILED : Logfile is not backed up from "sd1:LOG_FILENAME" to "sd1:BAK_FILENAME" Tried to save the SYSLOG file on the microSD memory to a backup file because it reached its maximum size but it failed
Configuration is copied from “0(internal)” to “sd1:FILENAME” Copied the configuration file to the microSD memory
FAILED : Configuration is not copied from "0(internal)" to "sd1:FILENAME" Failed to copy the configuration file to the microSD memory
Configuration is copied from "sd1:FILENAME" to "0(internal)" Copied the configuration file to the built-in flash ROM
FAILED : Configuration is not copied from "sd1:FILENAME" to "0(internal)" Failed to the configuration file to the built-in flash ROM
Firmware is copied from "sd1:FILENAME" to "0(internal)" Copied the firmware file to the built-in flash ROM
FAILED : Firmware is not copied from “sd1:FILENAME” to “0(internal)” Failed to copy the firmware file to the built-in flash ROM
Start Up From the Execution File On the External Memory [EXTMEMBOOT] Configuration file is found in microSD("sd1:/config.txt") A configuration file was found on the microSD memory
Firmware file is found in microSD("sd1:/rtx810_en.bin") A firmware file was found on the SD card
MD5 Checksum is differ The firmware file was invalid
Configuration file is not found. The configuration file was not found
Firmware file is not found. The firmware file was not found
Execute Batch File cannot find "sd1:FILENAME" The configured batch file "FILENAME" was not found
Batch-log file was opened("sd1:FILENAME") Opened the log file “FILENAME”
Execute batch file "sd1:FILENAME" Executed the batch file “FILENAME”
Executing batch file was canceled Aborted the execution of the batch file
Batch-log file was closed("sd1:FILENAME") Closed the log file “FILENAME”
DEBUG Common File open error ("sd1:FILENAME") Failed to open the file
File write error ("sd1:FILENAME") Failed to write to the file
File read error ("sd1:FILENAME") Failed to read the file
File size error ("sd1:FILENAME") The file size limit was exceeded
File encrypt error ("sd1:FILENAME") Failed to encrypt the file
File decrypt error ("sd1:FILENAME") Failed to decrypt the file

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